- Related Research Areas
- Earth Surface & Interior
HyspIRI is a Tier 2 mission recommended to NASA by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey report. One of the main goals of the HyspIRI mission is to provide global observations of surface attributes at local and landscape spatial scales (10’s of meters to hundreds of kilometers) to map volcanic gases and surface temperatures, which are identified as indicators of impending volcanic hazards; as well as plume ejecta which pose risks to aircraft and people and property downwind. We will create precursor HyspIRI data sets for volcanological analyses, using existing data over Mt. Etna, Italy. We have identified 12 EO-1 Hyperion data acquisitions, 12 near-coincident ASTER data acquisitions, and a MIVIS aircraft data acquisition, covering six eruptive periods between 2001 and 2007. These three data sets provide us with 30 m hyperspectral VSWIR data and 90 m multispectral TIR data (satellite) and 10 m multispectral TIR data (aircraft). They will allow us to examine temporal sequences of several Etnaean eruptions. We will address the following critical questions, directly related to understanding eruption hazards: 1) What do changes in SO2 emissions tell us about a volcano's activity? How well do these measurements compare with ground-based COSPEC measurements? 2) How do we use measurements of lava flow temperature and volume to predict advances of the flow front? 3) What do changes in lava lake temperatures and energy emissions tell us about possible eruptive behavior? Mapping SO2 emissions will be done using REALMUTO Software applied to our precursor HyspIRI data sets. We will calculate, through data analysis and models, the column abundance of SO2 all along Etna's plumes. Results will be compared with coincident COSPEC ground measurements at Etna obtained daily by Istituto Nazionale del Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Catania, Sicily. Examining the time history of SO2, compared with eruption history, will provide us some indication of the correlation between the two.
Data from the VSWIR and TIR will allow us to determine radiant temperatures over a wide range: edges of lava flows at 100C, to magmatic lava at 1100C. This improved characterization of flows is a crucial input into flow models for predicting run-out lengths. Similarly, improved accuracy for determining temperatures of lava lakes will provide better insight into the internal plumbing of Etna, and the state of magma ascent from depths.
In the area of sensor modeling we will fix the Lmax values for the 4 micron channel and examine the recommendation for a low gain 8-14 micron channel. We will simulate, in general, the response of HyspIRI (both the VSWIR and TIR) to active lavas using a combination of high resolution FLIR images, Hyperion spectra, Landsat images to simulate (using a stochastic approach) the surface leaving radiance from real lava flow fields. Convolving this with spectral response curves and PSFs for HyspIRI will allow us to analyze how lava flows will be sensed by HyspIRI.
We have assembled an extraordinary team of experienced and expert remote sensing volcanologists: three were members of the EO-1 Science Team; two are 10+ year members of the ASTER Science Team, three have years experience working with MIVIS data. Our team pioneered the extraction of SO2 concentrations from TIR data, and has been instrumental in development of analyses of volcanological thermal phenomena using remote sensing data. All are respected contributors to the peer-reviewed scientific literature.
Precursor HyspIRI data sets will be shared with the scientific community through an FTP site running at JPL. We will publicize the existence of these data sets by emails to IAVCEI and IWG-everybody mail-lists. Additionally, we will present our results at the AGU Conference, and submit the results for publication.
This work is proposed to be conducted as Fundamental Research.
Project PI: Michael Abrams/Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Jet Propulsion Laboratory M/S 183-501 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena, CA 91109
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