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Earth Surface & Interior

Predicting volcanic eruptions in order to mitigate their numerous hazards is a thorny problem as volcanoes typically exhibit idiosyncratic waxing and/or waning pre-eruption emission and seismic behavior. Increasing our accuracy and precision in eruption prediction depends on assessing the time-progressions of all relevant precursor geophysical, geochemical, and geological phenomena, and on more frequently observing volcanoes when they become restless. The ASTER instrument on the NASA Terra Earth Observing System low earth orbit platform provides important capabilities in the area of detection of volcanogenic anomalies such as thermal precursors and increased passive gas emissions. Its unique high spatial resolution multi-spectral thermal IR imaging data, bore-sighted with visible and near-IR imaging data, and combined with off-nadir pointing and stereophotogrammetric capabilities make ASTER an important volcanic precursor detection tool, particularly as the available Landsat imagers reach the ends of their useful lives. We propose to utilize the JPL ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA) to systematically examine 70,000+ ASTER volcano images to analyze (a) thermal emission baseline behavior for over 1500 volcanoes worldwide, (b) the form and magnitude of time-dependent thermal emission variability for these volcanoes, and (c) the spatio-temporal limits of detection of pre-eruption temporal changes in thermal emission in the context of eruption precursor behavior. We will create and analyze a catalog of the magnitude, frequency, and distribution of volcano thermal signatures worldwide, at high spatial resolution that will demonstrate the utility of one of the most complete remote sensing volcanological data sets ever compiled. This activity will make clear the value of a topical global data set for volcanoes and associated risks, and will support SESWG and Decadal Survey recommendations with respect to monitoring and mitigating volcanogenic natural hazards, and will guide the development of relevant future airborne and orbital instrumentation.

Project PI: David Pieri/Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Jet Propulsion Laboratory M/S 183-501 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena, CA 91109

Phone: (818)354-6299

Fax: (818)354-0966

Email: dave.pieri@jpl.nasa.gov

http://science.jpl.nasa.gov/people/Pieri/

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Started: Aug 09, 2010

Last Activity: Dec 10, 2010

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